** Why and how long Newton will be worshiped in science for works of others?**

**Main points **

How long scientists will give credit of work of Aristotle’s and Galileo’s work to Newton as his First Law of Motion?

How long scientists will give credit of Euler’s F=ma to Newton as his Second Law Of Motion?

How long scientists will teach Newton’s Third law which neglects many factors, and is incomplete?

**Discussion**

English scientist Sir Isaac Newton has status higher than God in science. His three laws of motion, are not only laws of science but Mantras to chant. An Indian independent researcher Ajay Sharma has spent 35 years of life on research on basic laws has confirmed Newton’s laws are not his ORIGINAL but complied from works of Aristotle, Galileo . After Newton’s death scientists gave Newton credit of F=ma (known as Newton’s Second Law of Motion) which was actually given by Euler in 1775. Sharma has also generalized Third Law of Motion.

“French scientist Renne Descartes, in 1644 in his book the Principles of Philosophy gave three laws of motion. In 1686 i.e. 42 years after Newton in his book The Principles of Mathematical Philosophy, gave three laws of motion( like Renne Descartes).”

We talked with details with Ajay Sharma ( author of over 60 research papers in international journals , conferences and two books BEYOND NEWTON AND ACAHIMEDES (2013, pp. 330) AND BEYOND EINSTEIN AND E=mc2 (2015, pp. 545) published form Cambridge England at cost of publisher.

** (i) Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Question 1 . What is the scientific basis for claiming that Newton did not give Second Law of Motion in form of F = ma (Force = mass x acceleration). It is being taught right from school level in 220 countries of the world?**

Ajay Sharma: Newton neither wrote F =ma as Second Law Of Motion in his masterpiece, The Principia nor in any other document authored by him. It is absolutely wrong to give Newton the credit for the work done by others.

**Question 2 : If not Newton , then who gave the equation or law F =ma?
Ajay Sharma: ** Actually, F =ma was given by Swiss scientist Leonhard Euler in 1775 i.e. 48 years after death of Newton. At that time Euler was at Saint Petersburg Academy in Russia.

**Question 3 : For proof give name of scientific journal in which Euler published F =ma ?
Ajay Sharma :** Euler published F =ma in the journal of Saint Petersburg Academy known as Novi Commentarii Volume 20 at page no. 222-223 in year 1776.

**Question 4: Is this paper accessible to general pubic?
Ajay Sharma :** Yes. The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) Washington , USA has archived Euler’s work on the website http://eulerarchive.maa.org/ . Here in the Index no. E479 at page no. 222-223 the equation F =ma is clearly published in Euler’s paper. It is no where published by Newton. Any old man or child can download the paper and can see with own eyes.

**Question 5 : Then how the law F =ma became Newton’s law ?
Ajay Sharma :** It was done after Newton’s death. The big scientists do big mistakes. It is a mistake that credit of F =ma is being given to Newton. Now it is important to correct the mistake, so that faith of general public remains in science and science does not become superstition.

** (ii) Newton’s First Law of Motion **

This law is given at page 19 of the Principia (translation in English from Latin ) in 1727 for first time by Andrew Mott. The link for original book is

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1&redir_esc=y&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false

**Question 6 : You state that first part of Newton’s First Law of Motion was actually given by Aristotle in 350 BC i.e. about 2036 years before Newton’s Principia , and second part of Newton’s First Law of Motion was given by Galileo in 1609 i.e. 77 years before Newton ?
Ajay Sharma:** It is 100% true; one is free to check the literature. If the laws are given earlier by Aristotle and Galileo, then it is incorrect and illogical to give credit to Newton. No one can justify it.

**Question 7 . How you can say that first part of Newton’s First Law of Motion was given by Aristotle about 2036 years before Newton?
Ajay Sharma: ** In simple words first part of Newton’s first law of motion is , “body keeps its state of rest unless compelled to change the state by external force.”

It was stated by Aristotle about 2036 years before Newton. After about 2000 years of continuous teaching, it was abandoned. But when Newton re-quoted the law (earlier given by Aristotle) in the Principia, it was accepted and being taught to students. So it is originally Aristotle’s law, not Newton’s.

**Question 8 : How do you say that second part of Newton’s First Law of Motion is Galileo’s Law of Inertia ?
Ajay Sharma : **According to second part of Newton’s First Law of Motion “ if body is moving with uniform velocity then it keeps on moving with uniform velocity unless external force acts on it.”

It is nothing but Galileo’s Law of Inertia given in 1609 i.e. 77 years before Newton. So it is Galileo’s law of inertia, not Newton’s .

The theme of discussion is that first part of First Law Of Motion was practically given by Aristotle about 2036 years before Newton. The second part of Newton’s first law of motion was given by Galileo as Law of inertia, 77 years before Newton’s Principia.

Thus First Law Of Motion is not originally given by Newton but by Aristotle and Galileo. It is sheer mistake by Newton, he should have written that he is re-quoting laws of Aristotle and Galileo as his First Law Of Motion. So the credit of First Law of Motion must not go Newton but to Aristotle and Galileo.

**(iii) Newton’s Third Law of Motion**

**Question 9 : According to Newton’s Third Law of Motion, “ to every action , there is equal and opposite reaction .” It is not only established law of science but also that of daily life.
Ajay Sharma:** You are correct. The basic limitation of the law is that action and reaction are not always or universally equal.

**Question 10: You mean to say that action and reaction are not always or equal . Can you illustrate it with help of experiments even to a layman?
Ajay Sharma: ** Let we have three bodies of rubber, spring, and wool or sponge of same mass. Let the three bodies are dropped from height of 1m. As the bodies of same mass , then according to Newton the action and reaction must be same for each body.

Let firstly ball of rubber is dropped from height 1m. Then rubber body or ball rebounds back to height 1m. Thus action and reaction are equal i.e. Action =Reaction. Thus in this case the third law hold good precisely.

Secondly, a body of spring is dropped from height of 1m on the same floor. After rebound, the spring rebounds to height of 2m. Thus reaction is double than action i.e. Reaction = 2 Action. This experiment can be repeated with super-elastic or bouncing ball. Thus third law is not obeyed.

Thirdly a ball or body of sponge or wool is dropped on the floor. The ball does not rebound at all. Thus reaction tends to zero. Thus there is no reaction, for definite action.

**Question 11 : What did you conclude from this experiments?
Ajay Sharma :** Newton neglected characteristics of bodies completely. Thus depending upon characteristics, in first case the action and reaction can be equal, in second case reaction is more than action and in third case reaction is zero but action is non-zero and definite.

**Question 12 What is reason of limitations of Newton’s third law of motion?
Ajay Sharma :** The law does not account for the significant factors e.g. inherent characteristics, nature, compositions, flexibility, rigidity, magnitude, size, elasticity, shape , distinctiveness of interacting bodies, mode of interactions, point of impact etc.

The law is universally applicable for all bodies e.g. bodies may be of steel, wood, rubber, cloth, wool, sponge, spring, typical plastic, porous material, air / fluid filled artifact, mud or kneaded flour or chewing gum specifically fabricated material etc. In all cases the action and reaction must be universally same, which is not experimentally justified.

**Question 13 . How do you explain above situation?
Ajay Sharma :** The law must be generalized i.e. Reaction is proportional to action. Thus a coefficient of proportionality comes in picture. It accounts for all factors (inherent nature, characteristics, elasticity etc) which are not taken in account by original form of the law . Thus law becomes complete.

The generalized form is flexible law i.e. Reaction may be equal to action or different.

—Ajay ‘s article on Generalization of Third Law of Motion

http://www.ijera.com/papers/Vol7_issue11/Part-4/N0711047795.pdf

http://physicsessays.org/browse-journal-2/product/1425-5-ajay-sharma-the-principia-s-third-law-of-motion-original-and-generalized-forms.html