**Newton, Einstein and Archimedes Laws update or generalized**
** INTERVIEW ON U-tube**

** ****https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ig414VSGiw&feature=youtu.be**

Science is lighting one Lamp from the other

To get the scientific light , burn the candle of doubt first.**General Questions**

1 Sir , 7.29 billion people believe that 2265 years old Archimedes principle, 330 years old Newton’s Laws and 110 years old Einstein’s E=mc^{2} are correct. Then why did you update or generalize them?

**Ajay Sharma:** I do not call the laws wrong or incorrect but definitely they are inadequate or incomplete in today’s context. So I have updated or modified them. When thousands or hundreds years ago , these laws were formed ,and at that time mathematical and experimental status was insignificant. So the laws were correct, at the time they were formulated. So in today’s context (mathematical and experimental status), they need to be updated or generalized. I am making the laws more meaningful.

**Q.2 Sir, let us believe that you are correct. Does scientific world agrees with you on update or generalization of basic laws?**

**Ajay Sharma:** My research papers have been published in internationally

recognized journals from Europe /America. I have been invited by organizers of over 90 international conferences from abroad. My research is also published by scientists in the proceedings of the conference. Apart from this my two books

**Beyond Newton and Archimedes &**

Beyond Einstein and E=mc^{2}

are published from Cambridge, England. These are published at cost of publisher. My views are endorsed by scientists.

I pray government that ….an open seminars be arranged on my research. I will answer questions of the experts in writing there and then. Tell me what else I can do?

**Q.3 Sir, before we talk about the complex laws of science, let us know something about your good self ?**

**Ajay Sharma :** I was born in village Berthin of distt Bilaspur, HP. My father was a teacher and poet. He believed that poor man had first right of the bread. My mother was housewife and very religious in nature. My wife is Dietician in government hospital Shimla and my daughter is an engineer in HCL , company in New Delhi, Noida. My son is in study yet.

I passed BSc. and MSc. (Physics) with first divisions and started my career as Lecturer physics at DAV College Chandigarh. The research is fully self supported.

** Newton’s Second Law of Motion**

**Q.4 Sir, you are saying that ‘Newton’s Second Law of Motion’ i.e. F=ma had not been given by Newton. Then name the scientist who gave it and when?**

**Ajay Sharma :** Newton’s second laws of motion (F=ma) was given 48 years after death of Newton in 1775 by Swiss scientist Leonhard Euler. The live proof for my statement is at website of **American Mathematical Association, Washington (.** In the paper E479, at page no. 223 the equation **F=ma is clearly written for 3 dimensions.** The second law is based on the equation F=ma and is taught in 220 countries of the world as Newton’s second law.

Yes, Newton published the second law of motion, in *the Principia* published in **1687 at page 19-20.** Its equation and definition is entirely different what is being taught in textbooks. Newton’s definition as given in *the Principia* , has nothing to do with F=ma.

On this topic I have given lectures in international conference in Texas, Austin, USA. My research paper is published in internationally recognized journals after recommendation of scientists. I have elaborated the issue in my two books

**Beyond Newton and Archimedes, and Beyond Einstein and E=mc**^{2} .

These are published from Cambridge, England at cost of publisher.

Newton’s Third Law of Motion.

Q.5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion is the most reputed law of the world, in physics, philosophy and daily life. According to this Action is equal to Reaction. How this law is wrong? Why did you generalize the same?

Ajay Sharma : **This law**

Action = Reaction ( unconditionally and universally for all bodies)

is not wrong but definitely inadequate.

The statement of the law simply involve **‘body’.** The body may be of **steel, wood, rubber wool and sponge. **According to Third Law , for everybody (of steel, wood, rubber wool and sponge.) for same action the reaction must be the same. But practically this prediction is not experimentally obeyed. It does not differentiate between steel and sponge while they act or react.

** The biggest ****LIMITATION**** of the law is that it ignores** **the ‘NATURE’ and ****‘composition’**** of body**. The nature and composition of iron body is different from sponge and wool. Both the bodies should not governed by different laws as their nature and characteristics are different. **cZ84vNdEbrq8Q**

Q.6 Sir , you have put forth updated or generalized form of law that the Action and Reaction are NOT always Equal. How will you demonstrate it experimentally?

Ajay Sharma : Let us throw rubber and cloth balls on the wall such that action is same in both cases. According to Newton the reaction should be PRECEISLY equal to action indiscrimately. But practically reaction is not equal to action. The rubber ball exhibits more reaction and cloth ball less. Thus rubber ball rebounds quickly than cloth ball. Thus this observation is not consistent with Third Law of Motion.

Q.7 Sir , what is reason of inadequacy of Third Law of Motion ? Tell us about your generalized or updated form of Third Law of Motion.

Ajay Sharma : The Third Law of Motion neglects the inherent nature and composition of bodies. The updated or generalized form of the law is :

*“ to every action there is opposite reaction but it may not be equal depending upon nature and characteristics of body.”*

Action =f Reaction,

‘f’ does not occur in Third Law of Motion

When generalized mathematical equation (Action =f Reaction) is written for the updated law , then additional coefficient of proportionality comes in picture . **This coefficient takes in account the inherent nature and composition of body. Thus Newton’s law has been extended.** It can also be understood with help of one dimensional elastic collisions.

** General Questions**

Q.8 Sir , now I ask a question deviating from complicated science. When you started tracking innovative ideas different from normal way of science?

Ajay Sharma: In the school Aristotle’s views taught that heavier bodies fall quickly than lighter bodies. After school, at home I climbed up on the veranda and dropped different bodies to check ideas of Aristotle. So it was love with science at first sight.

While a student of B.Sc. II in 1982 at age of 19, I openly declared that laws of Newton, Einstein and Archimedes need generalizations in some cases, may be at immature stage. It was like inviting hostility with whole world around . The ideas were opposed in all the ways. It appeared due to mental tension I will not be able to complete my BSc. so left talking about it. Thus continued working silently. Then passed BSc. and MSc (Physics) with first divisions . Then started my career as lecturer physics at DAV college Chandigarh .

Q.9 Sir , how did you continue research in spite of stiff action?

Ajay Sharma : However , black the night may be, the walker finds its way. When I was in MSc (Physics) I sent my articles to Pakistani Nobel Laureate and Founder Director of International Centre of Theoretical Physics , Italy Prof. Abdus Salam . He encouraged me lot. Thus I got more determined.

Moreover I did not expect very lucrative position out of work , so worked calmly, without fear and temptation. It is hard reality after death people give you coffin but burn, that too at burning ground, empty handed you come empty handed you go (may be dictator or celebrated individual or criminal or beggar). So work and work freely while you are alive.

** Archimedes principle**

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

****** A steel needle falls down as it is heavier than air.**

+++2265 years old Archimedes principle is correct.

Heavier body falls down

***** But HEAVIER helicopter or aeroplane , floats in the air.

Now 2265 years old Archimedes principle is INCORRECT ??????????

Why it is not discussed ?

It can compared with submerged submarine in the sea.

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Q.10 Why did you update or modify the 2265 years old principle?

**Ajay Sharma :** There is no yard stick that 2265 years old principle or the oldest principle should not be questioned. I have critically analyzed the applications of the principle based upon mathematical equations. The biggest limitation of Archimedes principle is that it ignores *the shape of body**.* There is no factor in equations which may account for *the* *shape of body*. To incorporate the effect of *shape * and other elusive factors (coefficient of viscosity of fluids) in the principle , it has been generalized. The principle becomes perfect and complete after generalization.

**Q.11 Sir, you have justified in your research papers and books that Archimedes principle has been regarded as true without equations for 1937 years. How strange it is?**

**Ajay Sharma:** It is true. This principle was given in 250BC. In 1687 i.e. after 1937 years the weight and upthrust were defined. In 1687 Newton published that law of gravitation in *the Principia.* Thus mathematical equations based on Archimedes principle were written for first time. Before formation of equations the principle was established.

The equations were written 328 years before ( 2015-1687) , were not properly checked by scientists. When these equations based upon Archimedes principle (formulated 328 years ago) are checked new results are emerging. The principle is not judged by its definition but by applications based on the equations. In some cases the principle is regarded as true without mathematical equations.

**Q.12 Sir, you explain with simple experiments the limitation of Archimedes principle in case of falling bodies?**

Ajay Sharma ; If we try to determine the distance travelled by bodies in certain time , then incorrect results are produced. The basic reason for incorrect results is that the principle ignores the *shape of body,* as in mathematical equation there is not coefficient which accounts for shape of body. Only density of body (D_{b}) and that of medium (D_{m}) occur in the equations.

Consider two bodies, one an *umbrella shaped* of steel of mass 1kg, and other a *small sphere* of steel of mass 1gm. Now both the bodies are dropped in drum filled with water. Now umbrella shaped body falls slowly in drum of water than a small sphere.

According to prediction based on the mathematical equations of Archimedes principle both bodies (umbrella shaped and spherical) must fall down equal distances in equal intervals of time. This experiment is contrary to Archimedes principle.

**Q.13 Sir, then how the experimental observations can be explained with Archimedes principle.**

Ajay Sharma: We need to update or generalize Archimedes principle (U=VD_{m}g). If the principle is generalized (U=fVD_{m}g) then additional coefficient (f) of proportionality comes in picture. This factor accounts for *the shape of body* and other factors. Thus equations based upon the generalized form of the principle predict that umbrella *shaped body* falls down slowly than spherical body. In generalized equation in addition to D_{m}, D_{b} , the coefficient f comes in picture. This additional coefficient accounts for *shape of body* and other elusive factors. Thus experimental observations are explained.

**Q14. Sir , how does Archimedes principle explains the floating bodies?**

or

A ship or helicopter floats in atmosphere but needle of same density falls.

Ajay Sharma : According to Archimedes principle , the body floats in medium if its density is equal to that of medium. The balloon floats when the density of balloon becomes equal to air.

D_{m} =D_{b} or density of body = density of medium

A steel needle falls down in air as its density is heavier or denser than air. On the other hand a steel helicopter or airplane floats in atmosphere (density more than that of air).

Thus there are many more factors which affect the state of bodies in atmosphere or vacuum. The original form of Archimedes principle does not explain or account for these but the generalized form of the principle does, as it contains additional factor (f). The aeroplane were not discovered in time of Archimedes, so could have not thought about it.

** General Question**

Q15. Does the government not help you in the research work?

Ajay Sharma : The government had helped me in getting the work to this stage. Due to cooperation of the HP government and department of education in past 28 years I have been able to publish the books. On 18^{th} June 2015 I met hon’ble Science and Technology Minister Dr Harsh Vardhan . He sent my books, **Beyond Newton and Archimedes, Beyond Einstein and E=mc**^{2} to Prof. Ashutosh Sharma Secretary Science and Technology, New Delhi for evaluation. Hon’ble Prime Minister too have sent my petition to Secretary DST, New Delhi. I request government that seminars be arranged on my research work . I will reply the questions of experts in writing. It will finish the matter.

Q.16 Sir , Einstein is regarded as father of Special Theory of Relativity . But you state that Einstein had simply complied the relativity i.e. Einstein had collected various aspects from the existing literature. Thus you call Einstein as plagiarist (who steals intellectual contents of others). Do you want to create controversy everywhere?

Ajay Sharma : I am not creating any controversy. I am presenting the facts scientifically and fearlessly . The basic pillars of relativity are two postulates, variation of mass with velocity , time dilation , and length contraction etc. These existed in literature before 1905 as discovered by other scientists . Einstein extracted these from books and articles and got them published as his own in June 1905 paper.

In the references he did not mention the names of scientists like Galileo, Poincare, Thomson, Lorentz, Larmer , Fitzgerald who have discovered various aspects of relativity. Einstein’s paper was published in German journal *Annalen der Physik * in June 1905 Editor did not get it reviewed by expert scientists. Otherwise mistake or cleverness of Einstein would have been detected in peer review and paper would have not been published.

Galileo had given the ‘Principle of Relativity’ in his book *‘Dialogue Concerning World’s Two Chief Systems’ *published in 1632. After 273 years i.e. in June 1905, Einstein published it as his own the first postulate or reflexion of relativity . In 1907 the German Nobel Laureate Max Planck and Stark criticized Einstein for this. Einstein’s paper was published in German.

As far as Newton is concerned , after nearly 100 years of death of Newton, the scientists credited him the law F=ma given by Euler in 1775. However Einstein deliberately owned the work of other scientists including Galileo, without acknowledging the contributing scientists. So by the dictionary meaning of word ‘plagiarist’ Einstein is plagiarist.

The Russian Physicist Dr Abram Ioffe had stated on record that he had seen in 1905 paper the paper regarding Special Theory of Relativity submitted as coauthored by Mileva Einstein-Marity and Albert Einstein. But when paper was published , only Einstein’s name had appeared . This is only the substantial argument that Mileva contributed scientific research, which is legitimately credited to Einstein. If Einstein did not give credit to Galileo , then how we should expect that he would give credit to Mileva.

**Q.17 Sir, on Einstein’s equation E=mc**^{2} , atom bomb and nuclear Physics is based. You have pointed out mistakes in its derivation.

Ajay Sharma : Einstein’s derivation of E=mc^{2} is without logic in many respects and also leads to contradictory results. For example the derivation predicts that if we lit a candle on 1^{st} January, then it will glow till 31^{st} December say or afterwards also, and its mass will also increase. So mass and energy are being created out of nothing.

Civilization survived and progressed when people believed that the Sun revolve around the earth.

**Q18 Sir, explain it further?**

**Ajay Sharma :** Einstein derived equation E=mc^{2} under *special or handpicked conditions* of the parameters. Einstein had taken special values of the variables in the derivation. Thus he deduced the results (E=mc^{2})

*“When candle burns its mass must decrease.”*

It is correct. The mass is converted to energy and conversion factor is c^{2}.

However, Einstein had ignored over 1 billion values of parameters or variables. In case we just change a parameter or variable in Einstein’s derivation then inconsistent results are obtained. For example

*“ when a candle burns its mass must increase simultaneously’* So mass and energy are created out of cipher. It is incorrect.

This derivation has another limitation. Einstein initially derived equation for Light Energy i.e. L =mc^{2}. Then Einstein incorrectly assumed that whatever ( mathematical or derivation ) is true for Light Energy, same is true for sound energy, heat energy, chemical energy. It is completely meaningless or absurd deduction. For different energy, the equation is different. But Einstein put forth (without ant proofs) E=mc^{2} is same as L =mc^{2}.

Q 19. Sir how did you explain it?

**Ajay Sharma:** The mass energy inter-conversion equation E=mc^{2} has been derived by new method. The new equation is E =Ac^{2} m, here A is coefficient of proportionality. There are many such coefficients existing in science. Its value changes with nature of conversion process. The energy emitted according to E =Ac^{2} m , can be equal or more or less than emitted by E=mc^{2} . Thus E =Ac^{2} m is generalized equation and E=mc^{2 }is its special case. There are many applications of the generalized equation.

**Q.20 Sir, you have strongly criticized Einstein’s derivation of ‘Rest Mass Energy’ E**_{rest} =M_{rest} c^{2} in 1907 paper. In this derivation you have maintained that ‘output’ is obtained ‘without input’ by Einstein.

**Ajay Sharma:** Yes, you are true. Einstein’s above derivation predicts ‘output’ without ‘input’. It implies that without air traffic fuel (ATF) an aeroplane can fly from New Delhi to London and London to New York. Without petrol bus can move from Chicago to Washington, and back to Chicago.

**Q21 Sir , how these contradictory results follow from Einstein’s derivation.**

**Ajay Sharma :** (i) In the derivation initially Einstein assumed that let a body is moving slowly. Under this assumption Einstein wrote first equation (dW=Fdx). Then Einstein assumed that the speed of body increases and becomes comparable with 3×10^{8} m/s or nearly speed equal to that of light. Like these relativistic effects comes in equation.

(ii) Thus we reach at eq.(10) from eq.(1). Then all of sudden Einstein applied condition to the mathematical equations that let body is at rest. It is completely illogical to apply this condition, as under this condition ( v=0, dx=0) the first equation is zero ( dW=Fdx=0), the remaining equations are non-existent. Thus eq.(10) does not exist. If first equation is zero, and other equations are non-existent, then NON-ZERO results cannot be obtained from NON-EXISTENT equation.

(iii) **Thus Einstein obtained E=mc**^{2 }, from non-existent equation (10) under condition when first equation is zero (dW=Fdx=0).

Thus Einstein obtained OUTPUT (E_{rme} =M_{rest }c^{2} ) without INPUT (dW=Fdx=0).

It is completely baseless deduction.

Science is not child’s play on the bank of sea that sandy houses and huts can made and marred.

**Q22 Sir, you are doing research on Newton, Einstein and Archimedes since past 33 years. How do you assess the future of your own and Indian science.**

Ajay Sharma : Bright, Bright and Bright. Hon’ble Minister of Science and Technology, Dr Harsh Vardhan has sent by books titled **Beyond Newton and Archimedes, Beyond Einstein and E=mc**^{2} Secretary Prof. Ashutosh Sharma to Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi for evaluation. These books are with department since Feb. 2015.

Also Hon’ble Prime Minster Sh. Narender Modi too have sent my petitions to the department. I humbly request Government that open seminars be conducted on my work . I will reply questions of scientists in writing. My work is approved and published by scientists of America and Europe. I am sure India will emerge as super power in fundamental laws of Physics.

** INTERVIEW ON U-tube**

** ****https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ig414VSGiw&feature=youtu.be**

based on books

Based on two books published from Cambridge, ENGLAND and INDIA at cost of publishers.

—–Beyond Newton and Archimedes (Sep. 2013 , pp. 330 Chapters 10)

****Beyond Einstein and E=mc^{2} (January 2015, pp. 546 , Chapters 7)

Research papers presented in International Conferences in USA (twice, 2007,2014), ENGLAND(twice, 2005,2006) , RUSSIA (2014), GERMANY ,UKRAIN ,Taiwan(2002) etc

Ajay Sharma has got over 90 invitation for presentation of papers in international conferences ALL OVER THE WORLD

www.AjayOnLine.us

https://www.facebook.com/ajay.pqrs

https://independent.academia.edu/ajaysharma57

Ajay Sharma

Email ajoy.plus@gmail.com

Mobile 94184 50899

Assistant Director Education

# Link for story First ever lecture in world stressing generalization of Newtons’ laws in Chitkara University

http://punjabnewsexpress.com/education/news/first-ever-lecture-in-world-stressing-generalization-of-newtons-laws-in-chitkara-university-43768.aspx

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